Pure water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. It is colorless, odorless and tasteless. It exists in liquid form at ambient temperature.
Water – what it contains:
Water contains both living and non-living organisms and substances. Living organisms can also be divided into macro and micro organisms. Macro organisms, which are biological, are organisms that can be seen with the naked eye or seen with a microscope.
In contrast, microbiological microorganisms cannot be seen even with a microscope.
Water quality criteria:
The quality of the water is a function of several factors. These include its source, location, geological conditions, water level depth, seasonal changes, domestic activities, agricultural activities, industrial activities, etc.
The overexploitation of natural resources and the use of technological developments independent of ecology negatively affect air, water and soil alike.
Substances found in water can be classified as floating matter and suspended matter. The floating matter takes the form of leaves, branches, dead organisms and algae. Examples of suspended matter in water are silt, clay, decaying plant matter, bacteria, microorganisms, algae, insoluble iron and manganese.
Carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. Besides gases, there are also dissolved impurities containing chemicals, minerals and salts.
Water resources and water quality:
Water quality varies by source. For example, turbidity in surface waters is usually high, groundwater and groundwater in river beds are colorless and clear. Again, subsoil water and groundwater are more likely to have completely dissolved solids than surface water. The presence of hardness, alkalinity, fluoride, chloride and nitrate is all more likely in groundwater than in surface level or subsoil water. Bacteria and organic matter are more likely to be found in surface-level waters than in groundwater or subsoil waters.
Water, like air, is essential for life. It can survive for a few minutes without air. But without water, it is certain that within a few days the person will die. We all know about air pollution. Water pollution is also a gift of modern man to future generations.
How water is polluted:
Pollution of water resources is caused by sewage and water from human settlements, discharge of solid waste, wastewater from industries and chemicals in agriculture. When foreign substances that are harmful to us are added, the water is necessarily polluted. Two foreign substances that immediately come to mind are industrial waste and sewage from cities.
Why we need good water:
We need good water for recreation, such as drinking by humans and animals, supporting aquatic life, generating electrical power, irrigating crops in fields, and water-based sports.
Therefore, the need for wastewater treatment can never be overemphasized.