A number of environmental issues remain an important part of our concern. Habitat destruction and degradation, biodiversity loss, stratospheric ozone depletion, global climate change, herbicides, pesticides, contamination of surface and groundwater, acid accumulation, oil spills and thermal pollution are direct environmental problems. Human population growth, unsustainable consumerism, urbanization, international conflicts and inequalities in wealth distribution are indirect environmental problems. All these problems are looked at as a whole in order to ameliorate these problems and secure the future of life on earth. The expansion of the chemical industries during and after the Second World War exacerbated such problems. “Silent Spring,” written by Rachel Carson, awakens to the threat of pollution to species. Environmentalism has been accepted in the public agenda since the first National Earth Day in 1970. The 1970s were the decade of the environment. Between the 1980s and 1990s, environmental problems were pushed into the political background and now come to the fore as human abuse. earth continues. It is believed that focusing on preventive measures rather than remedial measures against environmental problems makes a great contribution.
Diversity in living forms is due to changes in their genetic makeup, heredity of changes, and the workings of natural selection. The interaction between the environment, genetic variation, and natural selection leads to evolution. The origin of new species is the result of evolution. Existing biodiversity is the result of evolution and extinction. Evolution and extinction establish and disrupt a system in nature. The diversity of species and the complex relationships that sustain them fall under the term biodiversity. The term “Biodiversity” was coined by Thomas Lovejoy in 1980. EO Wilson coined the term “Biodiversity” in 1986. The 1992 United Nations Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, defined biodiversity as “the variability among living organisms from all sources”. including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part: this includes the diversity of species, between species and of ecosystems”.
Brown, an executive at UNDP, has recently argued that biodiversity is far from optional or luxury; rather it is a key development issue that often provides the welfare system for poor people and communities. Much of the world’s biodiversity is found in the economically poorest countries, providing the poor with opportunities to increase their incomes by utilizing the biodiversity resource. According to Brown, our future program should focus on “biodiversity for development”, not biodiversity or development.
Increasing population is disrupting the natural habitat in various ways. An assessment of wildlife habitat loss in tropical Asia reported that India has already lost about 80% of its natural habitat. Biodiversity has become the subject of international convention and is no longer the exclusive domain of biologists. The complexity on this planet lies in the dynamics of the “biodiversity/biosphere” system. The concept of sustainable development has emerged for the protection of natural and biological resources. Understanding biodiversity requires knowledge of taxonomy, evolution, genetics, behavioral biology, economics, ecology, environmental science, political science and sociology. In fact, economy and ecology intersect in a 3-fold system of biodiversity, biosphere and human society.
The evolution of the diversity of life is related to the interaction that includes the biosphere, human society and climate. In both Rio and Johannesburg, the economic and social development of humanity was emphasized as they were committed to long-term environmental health. The central role of biodiversity in sustainable development and poverty eradication was recognized in Johannesburg. The World Commission on Environment and Development report states that “If needs are to be met on a sustainable basis, the Earth’s natural resource base must be preserved and enhanced.” Developing countries grapple with social inequalities characterized by poverty, inadequate social opportunities, high unemployment rates and a lack of proper infrastructure. These countries base their development policies on the paradigm determined by the market economy. The efforts of such countries to achieve their development goals are in conflict with the protection of the environment. Poverty and current development trends lead to environmental degradation. The World Bank claimed that the poor are both victims and perpetrators of environmental abuse. The World Bank claimed that by 1991, more than 1,500 environmental components had been added to energy, transportation, industrial and agricultural projects, several of which were applied to improve soil conservation, manage forests and rangelands, prevent desertification, protect biological resources. protect diversity and water resources and fisheries. However, an interdisciplinary approach can help conserve biodiversity, together with environmental resources and mainly with the participation of humans.