Alternatives for Sustainable Development

Among the aspects that can create a new level in the relationship between man and nature are those described as clean technology, and once they come to the present, their identities become more visible.

Clean technologies will protect the environment, be less polluting, use all resources more sustainably, and recycle more products and waste.

Prevent contamination from creating little or no residue. If pollution is produced, clean technologies rely on other technologies for its purification. The proposed clean technology is to improve conditions and procedures for information, access and transfer of technology, especially for developing countries (UNCED, 2001).

In the words of Sachs (1986), “modern technology must be used for the development of new products (and markets), which can add value to biomass from agriculture, forestry and water, given the potential professional commitment to their production and management of renewable natural resources.”

For the implementation of technological innovations, it is necessary to take into account the attitudes, beliefs and values ​​of “social actors”, their mentality as a technological change and their effects on their behavior. If social groups are not ready to accept and/or absorb the effects and consequences of technological change, then the changes will certainly not be successful in producing results and thus will be sustainable in terms of productivity growth and development (RATTNNER, 1998). ).

Cleaning technologies to Agenda 21 (UNCED, 2001) brings the following recommendations:

a) clean technologies suggest different patterns of social relationships. Its recommendations are based on community organizations, solidarity and strong motivations, values ​​and common interests so that each community can actively participate in the construction of its own path,

b) accepting technological innovation as a way of maintaining socio-economic balance in contemporary society, it can be seen as a necessary condition for the continuity and “sustainability” of the development process,

c) if technological innovations fail to meet certain policy measures to prevent disruptive practices, leading to results similar to unsustainable growth strategies, for example, classes will enrich these innovations and the poor will become poorer.

Actions for the sustainability of the planet are re-emerging all the time. The concept of Clean Production, which states that Greenpeace should be a non-governmental organization, as emphasized by urgent and urgent measures, suggests that the linear equation should include industrial, classical, pipe end-based model, waste (pollution). the equation of the apartments with the factory, greater environmental concerns, water and energy consumption for further treatment and disposal.

According to Greenpeace, the foundations of cleaner production focus on five key principles:

a) Precautionary principle – the precautionary claim against diseases of workers and consumers, adopted in Europe, and irreparable harm to the planet. The manufacturer is the person who must take the responsibility and the burden of proof that a product, process or material will not harm people and the environment,

b) Prevention principle – recommends that the pollution control in the factory (end of pipe) be changed by preventing the generation of waste and the associated environmental impacts.

Inspection of process, end-of-life for products, consumption, distribution, disposal and waste treatment, packaging and products. Goals:

– Eliminate or reduce the generation of potentially polluting emissions;

– Taking measures to shift the design (drafting) to products;

– Revive consumers’ demand and change patterns for the use or consumption of materials.

The Vienna circle, which emerged in 1926, brought together a group of thinkers and scientific scholars led by Moritz Schlik (1882-1936) to discuss problems of science, logic, and scientific methodology. Also known as logical empiricism or logical positivism, is the neo-positivist trend incorporating some empiricist principles in developing a theory and methodology that emphasizes experimentation and verification in which knowledge is interpreted through lists or sentences.

Critical rationalism, which argues that science is rational, was supported by Karl R. Popper (1902-1994). Bringing the idea that “evidence is the fact that a scientific theory is fallible and refutable” can prove valuable not only to be a verifiable theory but also to be false.

This is a condition for refutation (or fallibility), resistant to theory to be verified or refuted.

Against Popper’s theory, Kuhn rejects the idea that the development of science occurs by virtue of the ‘rejection condition’.

Kuhn defends the idea that the evolution and progress of science is the intellectual tradition represented by the “paradigm” as stated in its definition earlier. When the paradigm fails to solve the problems in certain situations, it leaves its place to a new paradigm.

The development of science is not about the accumulation of knowledge, but “a series of scientific revolutions, characterized by transformations of the principles governing knowledge, causing a paradigm shift. Feyerabend said that a new theory is greater than the old and requires it (and that there is no “infringed standard of research”. ” he believes.

Jurgen Habernas characterizes contemporary societies as modernized corporations that preach the use of means to achieve ends, referring to the domination of nature for profit, and instrumental reason putting science and technology at the service of capital.

A way of reporting that our technological world is primarily driven by economic development (MORAES; MURICY, 1992) Thus, as we have seen in the paradigms that dominated all fields during the philosophical development of humanity, creating their own particular reasoning and the natural perceptions that characterize them, giving each an identity. is the proposition that the current of paradigm exists in all of its predecessors, that it has withdrawn its roots everywhere.

The entire conceptual basis of the dominant philosophical paradigm in culture is reflected in environmental thinking in the development and lifestyles of contemporary societies. These tests show that the condition of non-existence still prevails, adopting the understanding of today’s paradigm, embracing theft and environmental degradation, which has also led to social pressure.

a) the principle of integration – covers two issues: the application of resources for prevention and maintenance in all streams of the production system and the assessment of the life cycle of the product (Life Cycle Assessment). LCA was born in the 70’s and gained further momentum in the 90’s with the goal of ensuring the safety of products and processes for the environment and human health.

b) principle of democratic control: Involvement of workers, those living in the periphery of the factory industry, consumers and other segments of society in relation to the production processes of products and services and the effects of products that define survival strategies for Cleaner Production

The right of the public to access information: This law is regulated as follows:

– Citizen’s right to know and access information about environmental conditions and natural resources;

– The right to be consulted and to participate in decisions affecting the environment;

– Resources and the right to compensation for damage to the environment and human health.

Democratic participation is beyond the outline of the guiding principles of the actions of the capitalist world of production, it is that workers and consumers contribute to environmentally and socially responsible technological innovations, it is that players become more aware that they are exposed to changes in the degradation of nature. feel for the planet and also the victims of environmental impacts caused by development and technology.

The relationship between humanity and nature currently has a sustainable future projection and is geared towards the development of clean technologies.

Referring to Agenda 21 (UNCED, 2001), they are termed “environmentally sound technologies” because of their willingness to protect the environment by reducing the emission of pollutants, to use resources and products in a sustainable way and to recycle waste. According to Sachs (1993), new products should be developed with modern technology aiming to add value to agricultural biomass, forest and water based on the use of raw materials obtained from renewable natural resources.

Steam, electricity, natural gas etc. Rationalization of energy use, such as the use of energy, replacing fossil fuels in centralized power generation, has a great impact on reducing gas and solid particle formation.

The fact that it is a different paradigm from the one idealized by the existing institutions is important in the details for the sustainability proposal. In order to have a genuine quest for sustainable development, the sustainability proposals described above reveal the intentions of individuals involved in this process that they need to be aware of all the interrelationships of each element of the process. Therefore, awareness is the premise of any attempt to seek sustainable development, and then there is a real purpose in the action of those who call for preparation, hence managing the success of the process.

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